Modern crop pictures suggest a new and improved method for ion propulsion through space, using a two-stroke, “in-out”, AC homopolar device, which scientists at NASA or universities worldwide seem not to have considered before 

Humans on Earth desperately need to find a way to travel more easily and safely through space, to the Moon or nearby planets, rather than by using explosive chemical rockets. For that reason, many skilled scientists have tried to develop “ion propulsion” space drives. Yet all of the prototypes, as presently being tested, remain very low in thrust, and not nearly powerful enough to send human passengers for long journeys through space (see or mars-thruster-design-breaks-records or Their current levels of thrust are about the same as a “gentle wind” which might blow against a “sheet of paper”.  

The primary reason why current “ion thrusters” are so low in thrust, is because they work something like an ancient “sailing ship”. All current prototypes accelerate a dilute stream of heavy, charged ions between two large plates (or “sails”) of positive versus negative charge, in order to give them sufficient kinetic energy to push the spacecraft forward, by Newton’s law of action and reaction.  

By contrast, most powerful motors which have been accepted for widespread use on Earth (such as the steam engine or internal combustion engine) use “two strokes”. In a first step, some propellant (say water or petrol) is added to a small chamber where it is heated, compressed and/or ignited (somewhat like “blowing up a balloon”). Then in a second step, the heated, compressed or ignited propellant is released explosively through a small nozzle (like for a jet engine). This moves the motor or aircraft forward with tremendous thrust.  

A new principle of classical electromagnetism: the “AC homopolar disc” or “AC Hall effect”   

How can we make any progress on this important subject? Well, the mysterious E.T. “crop artists” seem to have shown us repeatedly, in dozens of pictures since 1991, a new principle of classical electromagnetism which could be used to improve our methods of “ion propulsion”, that has not been considered yet by scientists here on Earth. I certainly did not “invent” this new principle! Rather I noticed it over and over again, while studying modern crop pictures from 1991 to 2016, as possible “technical diagrams” which may have been drawn with the intent to teach us new technologies. This new principle might be called the “AC homopolar disc” or “AC Hall effect”.  

How does it work? First let us study how an ordinary “DC homopolar disk” works!  

In order to understand this new principle, first we should study how an ordinary “DC homopolar disc” or “DC Hall effect” works. Basically if you spin a conductive copper or aluminium disc over a permanent North-South magnet, or over a DC electromagnet, this will generate a radial electric field from the centre of the spinning disc to its outer edges in all directions. For example, in one possible case, negatively-charged electrons which are spinning along with that conductive disc, and perpendicular to a North-South magnetic field, will experience a “Lorentz force” which tries to curve them out toward the perimeter of the disc, thereby leaving positively-charged “holes” near its centre. The radial electric field in this case will be - / + / - . Next if we attach a “brush” somewhere along the outer perimeter of that spinning disc, and a “connecting wire” between the brush and its central axis of spin, electrons will flow strongly from the centre to the outside (see or  

This has also been called the “Corbino disc” (see or “unipolar dynamo” (see notes-unipolar-dynamo). It was described by the very first “technical diagram” ever to be drawn in crops, near Barbary Castle on July 17, 1991. In the two slides below, we can see how a combination of negatively-charged electrons (-) flowing to the outer perimeter of a spinning disc, along with positively-charged “holes” (+) flowing in toward its centre, may create a radial electric field of the kind - / + / -.  

Thus the E.T. crop artists sometimes show us a “DC homopolar disc”, complete with suggestions of a “radial electric field” as either - / + / - or + / - / +. Another spectacular example of a “spinning” DC homopolar motor was drawn in crops near Wappenbury on August 15, 2012 (see  

How might an “AC homopolar disk” differ from a “DC homopolar disk”?  

Yet more often they show us an AC version of this same device! In the latter case, a conductive disc may spin over an AC electromagnet, or over a ring of AC electromagnets, which is flipping its magnetic field regularly from N/S to S/N and then back again. In principle, this should generate an “in-out” or “zig-zag” kind of voltage or electric current, as might be seen on an oscilloscope screen. Please see for example two related crop pictures from August of 2012, near Stone Pit Hill or Devil’s Den, which seem to describe an “AC homopolar disc” and its “zig zag” oscilloscope output very clearly (see bishops-cannings-cropcircle2-2012 or fyfield-cropcircle-2012).  

This “AC homopolar disc”, as a consequence of its “in-out” or “back and forward” current fluctuations (see time 2:00 of, should also be able to generate a fast-switching set of radial electric fields, as - / + / - switching to + / - / +.and then back again, as the field of an electromagnet below that spinning disc switches from N/S to S/N, then back again to N/S.  

New video of a UFO which flies through space by ion propulsion?  

So far as science today on Earth is concerned, an “AC homopolar disc” seems never to have been considered as a possible principle for any useful device, including that of “ion propulsion”. Just imagine that if Nicola Tesla had never lived, we might still be using DC electric power and DC motors everywhere! Tesla introduced the principle of a “rotating magnetic field”, which allowed electric motors or generators to continue rotating forward smoothly, without any unwanted reversal of the electric currents induced, by rotating a magnet within a stator of wire coils.  

The crop artists have now likewise introduced a new principle of “fast-switching, radial electric fields”, which may allow certain devices to absorb and compress (or heat) charged particles in one step, then eject them rapidly in a second step. We cannot be sure what the practical uses of this “AC homopolar disc” might be, until we build and test many models.  

We can already see however what might be an “ion propulsion” drive, for a small UFO which flew past the partly-eclipsed Moon on January 31, 2018 (see time 0:40 of In this well-documented video, the frequency of field-switching and ion-ejection seems rather slow as only 1-2 Hz. Please watch around time 0:40, to see how that UFO seems to be propelled forward by a pulsed exhaust, which is emitted from the rear of the craft at regular intervals. The UFO seems to be moving through space very forcefully, like a “squid” or “octopus” might swim through water, rather than as a “sailing ship” might advance very gradually, when a gentle gust of wind fills its sails.  

Some “technical diagrams” as drawn in crops, concerning “ion propulsion” or an “AC homopolar disc”  

Next let us show some of the many “technical diagrams” which have been drawn in crops, concerning an “ion propulsion” drive or the “AC homopolar disc”. The expected “zig-zag” electrical output of this device was drawn in one case on a metaphorical crop “oscilloscope screen”!   

For a complete summary of all crop “technical drawings” which seem to describe “ion propulsion” or “magnetic levitation”, please see a long slide show which may be viewed or downloaded here (see ac-homopolar-disc1).  

April or May of 1999 near Milk Hill: a “spinning disc” within a “ring of magnets” ejects a “large particle” 

A large, round “particle” enters a “ring of magnets” from below, then gets ejected upward as a “central disc” spins.  

June of 2009 near Milk Hill: a “ring of electromagnets” can eject two kinds of “charged particle” by the right-hand rule of electricity and magnetism, as its overall magnetic field switches from “n” to “s”   

Two kinds of “charged particle” seem to be ejected downward from a “ring of electromagnets”, as the overall magnetic field within that ring switches from “n” (North) to “s” (South). 

Late July of 2012 near Windmill Hill or Etchilhampton: a “ring of electromagnets” with “alternating currents” can eject many “large particles” from its centre 

When we overlap and combine these two crop pictures, we see a “ring of electromagnets” with “alternating electrical currents”, which seem to be ejecting many “large particles” away from the centre. 

Late July of 2012 near Stone Pit Hill, Devil’s Den or Wappenbury: a “spinning homopolar disc” with “zig-zag” electrical outputs on an “oscilloscope screen”, and then a “DC homopolar motor”  

When we combine the first two crop pictures, we can see a “spinning homopolar disc” with two alternating kinds of radial sector, which can create alternating “in-out” or “zig-zag” electrical outputs on a metaphorical, crop-drawn “oscilloscope screen”.  

A few days later, we saw the spectacular image of a “rotating DC homopolar motor” drawn in crops near Wappenbury.  

June of 2008, 2009 or 2010 in northern Italy: a ring of “permanent magnets” under a “spinning conductive disc” shows the “DC Hall effect”, then a related ring of “AC electromagnets” shows the “AC Hall effect” 

Four successive crop pictures over four years in northern Italy (2008-2011) showed first a “ring of permanent magnets” (2008), then a “ring of magnets” plus a “conductive disc”, which was spinning so as to create an inward electrical current or “DC Hall effect” (2009).  

Next we saw a “ring of AC electromagnets” plus a “conductive disc”, which was spinning so as to create an “AC Hall effect” (2010). This AC Hall effect seems to be associated with a “radial electric field”, as described in crops by the coded formula “E = MC^2”.                                                                                                              

A “thin circular line” divides each of six “electromagnets” into outer versus inner parts, with certain numbers of “small particles” on each side (2010). We can probably identify that “thin circular line” with the boundary of positively versus negatively-charged particles within a radial electric field. This field creates  a potential energy of “E = MC^2”, which may be used to eject heavy charged particles in a crop picture from the next year (2011) as part of an ion-propulsion drive. 

A “ring of electromagnets” can shoot out a jet of ionized particles: what is the physics?  

Many different crop pictures over the years have shown a similar effect. Somehow a “ring of electromagnets” can shoot out a jet of ionized particles for spacecraft propulsion. How exactly might this be accomplished?  

The crop artists have made a special point of telling us how a “ring of permanent magnets” or DC electromagnets can create a radial electric field, which is known as the “DC Hall effect”. Likewise a “ring of AC electromagnets” can apparently create a set of fast-switching, radial electric fields, whether + / - / + or - / + / - , which is known as the “AC Hall effect”.  

If we set up the conditions for fast-switching radial electric fields within an AC electromagnet, then a time-varying gradient of such fields, along the length of the electromagnet, might provide an excellent mechanism for powerful “ion propulsion”:  

We cannot be sure, just by studying “crop pictures”, exactly how this new kind of “UFO propulsion drive” works. We can only make plausible speculations, based on an extrapolation of what we already know concerning old physics on Earth. The diagrams and speculations shown here are certainly not meant to be a “last word” on the subject, but rather a “useful starting point” for others to begin their own experimental or theoretical investigations. Hopefully our combined studies will allow us to fly safely soon to Mars or other planets in our solar system.   

Pictures of real UFOs which seem to use “ion propulsion” space drives 

This eyewitness drawing of a real UFO came from the “C.J.” contact case near Wadley, Georgia on June 29, 2015. The large craft seems to use some kind of ion-propulsion drive (see military-witnesses-see-ufo-cross-highway-georgia   or  

“The object appeared to be approximately 250 meters in length, 60 meters in height, and was flying at approximately 200 feet in altitude. It was spurting out sparks from the rear. Those sparks were jetting out by 50 to 80 meters in a pattern of controlled thrust.”  

The video of this second UFO was taken as it flew past a partly-eclipsed Moon on January 31, 2018. It likewise seems to show a pulsed, ion propulsion drive (several frames were taken from the official NASA video as cited above).                                                                                                

Many more technical diagrams have been drawn in crops, concerning UFO “ion propulsion” or “magnetic levitation” 

These are just some of the many instructional diagrams concerning “ion propulsion” or “magnetic levitation” which have been drawn in crops. If you are interested, please see a complete summary of such crop “technical drawings” in a long slide show, which may be viewed or downloaded here (see ac-homopolar-disc1).  

What do golf swings, cricket swings and tennis swings have in common? They all have “two strokes”, namely a backswing and a forward swing! I don’t think there is any doubt as to whether the E.T. crop artists are advising us to build a “two stroke” ion propulsion engine, based on a set of fast-switching, radial electric fields, which may be created by an AC electromagnet (or ring of AC electromagnets). Our current “continuous” or “one stroke” ion thrusters are not powerful enough to be really useful.  

Many other technical diagrams have been drawn in crops concerning “electromagnetism” in general, or various ”electromagnetic devices” 

Many other technical diagrams concerning “electromagnetism” or “electromagnetic devices” have been drawn in crops, but were not shown here for lack of space. If you are interested, please see either of two long (and informal) slide shows posted on ufo-space-drive41 or   

ufo-space-drive-extra5 ). Each of these may be freely viewed or downloaded for research purposes.  

Dr. Horace R. Drew (“Red Collie”)

Appendix 1. A “spinning ring of magnets”, crescent-shaped overlaps between “moving magnets” and “wire coils”, and the “Muller dynamo” 

Further study of these field images suggests that some of the “magnetic motors or generators”, which have been drawn in crops, resemble a “spinning ring of magnets” as found in the famous “Muller dynamo”, which was developed by Bill Muller from Canada in the 1970’s. The original “Muller dynamo” had 16 ring magnets arranged in an alternating fashion as N up-S up-N up-S up, along with 15 small pairs of wire coils. A related “Romero-Muller” replication in 2011 had 8 ring magnets arranged in an identical fashion as N up-N up-N up-N up, along with 9 small pairs of wire coils.  

Many thanks to his daughter Carmen for providing useful information on this subject, and to the PESN researchers for taking such a keen interest. Bill Muller was also (apparently) interested in “crop circles”, for providing new information about magnetic energy devices, so it seems appropriate that we should acknowledge his pioneering efforts here. No other explanations for the highly-detailed crop pictures, shown in slides below, seem plausible at the present time.  

P.S. Many thanks to all of the excellent crop-circle photographers and researchers who have studied this phenomenon carefully for almost 30 years, and have compiled databases which would improve human knowledge greatly, if the professional scientists on Earth ever decided to study them.  

An entirely new, four-symbol “multiplex” binary computer code, obtained from close contact of a US military man with UFO visitors in 2015, was described here (see article   or This two-stroke “ion propulsion” drive is thus the second major technical advance to be learned from my personal study UFOs or crop pictures.



Mark Fussell & Stuart Dike

web counter