Are human time travellers from the year 8100 making complex pictures in English fields? The complete Woodbridge UFO binary code of 16 pages, and its possible relation to “crop circles”
A well-documented series of UFO contacts, near the Woodbridge and Bentwaters RAF bases in southeast England during December of 1980, has received much attention both from mainstream sources (see www.telegraph.co.uk or www.youtube.com or www.youtube.com) and from paranormal researchers (see www.youtube.com or www.youtube.com or www.youtube.com or www.youtube.com). Ostensibly, contact was made on the ground between a landed UFO and several dozen servicemen from the US military, who were guarding nuclear weapons at a nearby RAF base, as well as with several British policemen.
The British public in 1980 were not told that US nuclear weapons were being stored in their country, despite strong opposition from the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (see www.cnduk.org/about/item/437). These weapons were intended to be used as a threat against Russia, if it invaded Poland to stop the new Solidarity union movement. Nor were the British public told about a series of UFO contacts on the very base which was storing those nuclear weapons, over three nights in December of 1980 (see www.ufoevidence.org or www.dailymail.co.uk). Today the British public have not been told the truth about “crop circles”, except being encouraged to ridicule them.
Sketches of the landed UFO
Sketches of the landed UFO, including strange symbols on its side, were made by US servicemen Jim Penniston and John Burroughs (see www.hyper.net/ufo/rendlesham.html). Other sketches were made by US serviceman Larry Warren (see www.amazon.com or Larry_Warren ). The commander of the base at that time was Colonel Charles Halt, who investigated and made an audio cassette tape of the incident (see www.youtube.com). Later the entire case was studied by Nick Pope formerly of the MOD (see www.nickpope.net) and Linda Howe, a science reporter from the USA (see www.earthfiles.com ). Our best images of the sketched UFO and symbols on its side are shown below:
We have also shown photos (lower part) of Colonel Charles Halt, Jim Penniston, John Burroughs and Nick Pope (going from left to right). Some witnesses said that “time moved more slowly” in the vicinity of that landed UFO. One might ask why no direct photographic evidence is available? Apparently some of the attempted camera images came out “fogged”, while other films were confiscated by the US military. If there is direct photographic evidence, then it has not been made publicly available.
A long binary code was supposedly transmitted by electronic telepathy from the landed UFO to Jim Penniston
One of the most interesting aspects of this UFO contact was the putative reception of a long message in binary code by Jim Penniston, when he touched certain symbols on the side of the landed craft. He “saw” thousands of consecutive zeros and ones in his mind, through some form of electronically directed telepathy. After returning home, he felt a need to write them all down on paper, and did so on 16 pages of a small notebook (see www.youtube.com).
Little or no significance was attached to this long series of zeros and ones until 2010, when a meeting was held to mark the 30th anniversary of the Woodbridge UFO case. Penniston apparently did not realize it could be some kind of “code”. Indeed, computer codes did not enter the awareness of a typical person on Earth until after the year 2000. Most people still do not know about them today, although they appear regularly in crop pictures!
The first five pages of that binary code were released for public inspection in 2010, while its remaining eleven pages were not released until April 15, 2014, with the publication of a new book called “Encounter in Rendlesham Forest" by Nick Pope, Jim Penniston and John Burroughs (see www.amazon.com/ or www.therendleshamforestincident.com ). A full translation of the binary code from eight-bit ASCII into English was provided there. Yet given the potential significance of this code for science, I thought it would be important to translate the entire binary code again from first principles, in order to check every detail. Also I wished to learn whether it might have any relevance to the mysterious origin of “crop circles”?
The complete Woodbridge binary code of 16 pages, translated from eight-bit ASCII into English
Sixteen annotated pages of this binary code are shown in Appendix 1 below, for computer experts to study. Its overall translation in an independent sense is summarized in the slide below:
It seems to be the kind of message which would be given out by a team of human scientists from our future, who are/will be engaged with exploring their past (or our present). Might we call them “chrononauts”? The message starts with a series of general phrases:
EXPLORATION OF HUMANITY. CONTINUOUS FOR PLANETARY ADVANCE. FOURTH COORDINATE CONTINUOUS.
“Time” is the fourth coordinate of (x, y, z, t).
Near the end of the message it says:
ORIGIN 52 0942532 N (north latitude) 1 3131269 W (west longitude)
ORIGIN YEAR 8100.
These same “latitude, longitude, year” values were also given near the start of the message. Although two small parts of the message remain unclear, these three numbers seem to have been transmitted accurately, and can be relied upon to tell us where (or when) the UFO occupants come from. In other words, the Woodbridge UFO occupants seem to be time travellers from our distant future on Earth. They come from the year 8100 (possibly AD), and from a latitude-longitude somewhere in southern England. There is some question about longitude “West” versus “East”, which will be discussed further below.
Next in the middle of the message we can see the word “BEFORE”, along with six other sets of precisely defined latitudes or longitudes on Earth. No decimal points were encoded anywhere. Yet all of those “BEFORE” coordinates show six digits past the decimal point in a self-consistent fashion. Two “ORIGIN” coordinates show seven digits past the decimal point, again in a self-consistent fashion.
Another phrase is “EYES OF YOUR EYES”, which could be the assigned name for this scientific exploration effort. Perhaps a few time travellers have been sent back in time to see the past for themselves, while everyone else on Earth (6000 years from now) will be watching their results? It would be of interest to learn which places on Earth they decided to travel to “BEFORE” they visited RAF Woodbridge-Bentwaters in 1980, and indeed we will show all six historically significant places below.
Questions about origin: where do they come from on Earth in the distant future?
The “ORIGIN” for those time travellers seems to be none other than Woodbridge, England about 6000 years from now:
It would be impossible for both latitude and longitude coordinates from the binary code to match the town centre of Woodbridge to six digits past the decimal point, if this were not the case.
Pope, Penniston and Burroughs suggest in their new book that an “origin” for those time travellers may lie far out in the Atlantic Ocean, at a longitude of 13 131269 W rather than 1 3131269 W. This seems unlikely, because then the two sets of numbers given for latitude and longitude would not both show seven digits past the decimal point in a self-consistent fashion. The accepted latitude value is 52 0942532 N.
Still it is strange that Woodbridge, England (the town closest to that 1980 UFO contact) should show a longitude on our Earth today of 1 313127 East, rather than 1 313127 West, as was provided twice in the binary code. No such reversal of “East versus West” appears for any other of the six longitude coordinates given in its “BEFORE” section.
One possible solution to this problem is that our time-traveller friends come from a “mirror universe”, where many things remain similar to our Earth today (towns, humans), but planetary directions of East and West are reversed. In the science-fiction TV show “Fringe”, they call this parallel universe “the other side”. If this is not the case, then those time travellers may come from a location in southern England at longitude 1 313127 W just outside of Banbury. Again their origin would lie in southern England, close to where most crop pictures appear near Avebury or Silbury Hill (latitude 51 N, longitude 2 W).
Possible relevance of this new UFO binary code to English “crop circles”
This new binary code of 16 pages may provide useful clues, in regard to the origin of those mysterious “crop circles”. First, we can see that certain crop circles seem to encode for the “latitude and longitude” of nearby English cities in similar way. For example a spiral crop picture from Yatesbury on May 30, 2007 seems to encode for the latitude and longitude of Marlborough (not far away) as 51 421 N and 1 722 W:
Within the empty spaces of that crop picture we can see a number of 1 31312, which is precisely the ORIGIN longitude for Woodbridge in southeast England. Could time travellers from our distant future be creating “crop circles” as directional markers, to help them navigate in their distant past, which is our present?
Next we can see that some of the symbols, which Jim Penniston noted along the outside of that landed UFO in 1980, match other symbols which appear in crop circles today, for example near Barbury Castle in May of 2011:
Thirdly, many crop pictures have shown the schematic images of curved spacetime geometries (as for “wormholes”), or hypothetical time-travel devices such as “Roman rings”:
Other crop pictures (shown above at lower right) show the schematic images of “hyperbolic cubes” or “closed time-like curves”. Both of those are thought by physicists today to form a fundamental basis for time travel.
Finally, a whole host of crop pictures (perhaps twenty to thirty) have suggested a precise foreknowledge of future events, on the part of our crop artist friends. Some of them illustrate unexpected astronomical or geological events such as cometary outbursts or paths, stellar novae, solar flares, or periods of major earthquake activity:
Most of these future-predictive crop pictures are written using subtle mathematical codes, which ordinary members of the public cannot understand. Only advanced scientists could write so many different complex codes. Last year for example, many crop pictures predicted the path of comet Ison around our Sun, while others anticipated two stellar outbursts as Nova Delphinis (on August 14) or Nova Centaurus (on December 1).
Some crop pictures concerning comet Ison were drawn as long ago as 2009, three years before it was “discovered”. Some crop pictures which predicted the outburst of comet 17P Holmes in 2007 appeared during the summer of 2005, two years before it happened.
Other future-predictive crop pictures predict important events in human history. There was no prediction of the events of 9-11-2001 in crops, but then at Crabwood in 2002 they wrote in eight-bit ASCII code “much pain but still time”. This dire prediction presumably refers to our not-too-far-off future, say 2020 to 2050. Two crop pictures from 2007 showed the BP company logo and an “oil spill”, to predict what would happen in the Gulf of Mexico during 2010. Six crop pictures from 2010 showed images for “nuclear energy” or even an “atomic bomb clock”, to predict what would happen at Fukushima during 2011. Last summer in 2013 we saw a series of crop pictures which showed “large UFOs flying or landing”, in order to suggest that open extra-terrestrial contact with planet Earth may not be far off.
There are many prior references to all of the work cited above, but I do not wish to trouble the webmaster with dozens of different links to insert! Please check these various topics on Crop Circle Connector Research or News using a Google search, or in its Archives for members (1980-2013), and you will learn a lot. Even if you are a professional scientist, and think you know everything already by reading textbooks, you will learn a lot. Did they teach about “iPhones” in schools from classical Rome or Greece? No, and those people lived just 2000 years before us! The crop artists (some of them) seem to live 6000 years in our future. Of course they know more than us.
Those time travellers visited six different, historically-important places on Earth, before they visited Woodbridge, England in 1980
An independent translation of the Woodbridge UFO binary code by Jim Penniston is very similar to what we presented above, except for the assigned “origin”:
He also lists six different locations of past time-travel visits as: Caracol Pyramid in Belize, close to Montezuma’s Castle in Arizona, the Giza pyramid complex in Egypt, Nazca Lines in Peru, Tai Shan mountain in China, and Portara on Naxos Island near Greece. We will now show below where all of those supposed past time-travel visits seem to have occurred.
Caracol Pyramid in Belize (a Mayan construction):
Just north of Montezuma’s Castle in Arizona (a north American native construction):
The Giza pyramid complex in Egypt:
Nazca lines in Peru:
Tai Shan mountain in China:
Portara on Naxos Island near Greece:
Do time travellers from our distant future really exist? Very possibly, unless the entire Woodbridge UFO contact (witnessed by 30 US servicemen) and this long binary code are both elaborate hoaxes. This huge body of witness testimonies and physical evidence seems too much to be a hoax. If those servicemen were “crazy”, then why were they assigned to guard nuclear weapons?
The Cambridge offices of Professor Stephen Hawking do not seem to be on their list
Those human time travellers list their origin as southern England in the year 8100, yet they did not include nearby Cambridge University on their list, of six historically important attractions from Earth’s past. How shocking! The university offices of Professor Stephen Hawking, who does not believe in time travel, did not even rate a mention. Hawking concluded several years ago that time travel is impossible, partly on theoretical grounds, and partly because he organized a “party” for those hypothetical time travellers, and no one showed up (see www.dailymail.co.uk).
If you were a time traveller, could you safely change the past, or would you only “observe”?
Human time travellers have been a favourite theme in many works of science fiction, starting with H.G. Wells in the 19th century. More recently, a popular science-fiction TV show called “Fringe” included time travellers from the year 2600 AD as “Observers”. In the plot of that TV show, a human society living six hundred years from now sends twelve representatives back in time, in order to observe important events from our era. Those twelve exploratory scientists were given code names “January” to “December” for the twelve months of a year.
One of those twelve time travellers called “September” is a keen Observer, and accidently changes the past when he rescues a man (Walter) and his son (Peter) from an icy lake. Later he is called upon by the other eleven to fix the damage which he has done to time, or to “restore balance”. He therefore contacts an open-minded scientist from our era (Walter) to ask for his help.
Walter is distrustful, because he imagines that September will take his son away again, in order to restore the original timeline. He pleads with September: “You know the future. Tell me how I can save my son from dying?”
September replies: “There are things that I know, but there are also things that I do not. Various possible futures are happening simultaneously. I know them all, but cannot tell you which one will come to pass. Every action causes ripples, with consequences both obvious and unforeseen.”
We do not know the science of time and history yet in 2014 AD, but can be pretty sure that other humans from our distant future on Earth may know this difficult and arcane science. Whether they choose just to observe, or alternatively to change our present (their past), is an open and interesting question. They seem to draw “crop circles” in our fields, but for what purpose? Simply for navigation among various possible pasts or parallel universes? Or to change how humans of our era think and behave?
An increased awareness of their scientific program among many members of our human race could cause a change in time and history. Yet there is a powerful movement to deny its existence from government authorities. There is also an irrational contempt of the crop circle phenomenon from leading physicists, who should know better. Where will all of this strange activity lead next? I don’t know. “The past is prelude”.
Red Collie (Dr. Horace R. Drew)
P.S. I would like to thank Linda Howe and Bill Chalker for their help. Also I would like to thank the time-traveller Sarana (Sirona) who acted kindly toward my family in 1999. If she is reading this, I hope that we will meet in the future (your past, ha, ha).
Appendix 1. Annotated translations of the complete, 16-page Woodbridge UFO binary code from eight-bit ASCII into English
These sixteen slides show pages 1 to 16 of the Woodbridge UFO binary code, which was reportedly received through electronic telepathy by Jim Penniston in 1980, when he touched certain symbols on the landed craft. He then wrote the code down in a small notebook immediately afterward, without realizing its significance.
The first five pages of this code were made available to Linda Howe and myself in 2010, by direct photographic transfer. Its next eleven pages were not made available until April 15, 2014, with publication of a new book called “Encounter in Rendlesham Forest" by Nick Pope, Jim Penniston and John Burroughs. Copies of those eleven pages were scanned from a printed copy (by LMH), which is why they appear less visually distinct than the first five pages.
We cannot be sure that this long binary message was actually received from a landed UFO in 1980, close to the Woodbridge and Bentwaters RAF bases. Yet given its potential significance for science, we thought that it would be important for an independent expert (i.e. HRD) to translate the entire code again from first principles, and then present an annotated copy to the entire world for further inspection and study. Just as when reading from an ancient cuneiform tablet, this binary code cannot be read accurately in two places, which have been labelled in red as “unclear”. In all other places, its translated message seems clear, despite occasional errors in coding, which might be expected given the unusual means by which it was received. It resembles also a slightly-mutated DNA coding region from Genbank, which can still be read accurately despite occasional errors.
Appendix 2. Two unclear parts of the Woodbridge UFO binary code have now been solved: the “fourth coordinate” time of (x, y, z, t) is a “continuous sequence of probabilities”
Two unclear parts of the Woodbridge UFO binary code have now been solved to a reasonable degree of certainty. These two parts are marked in red below:
First there is an “escape” character as binary 0011011 or decimal 27, which serves to separate its title “EXPLORATION OF HUMANITY” from the main text which follows:
Next there is a long, strange phrase which is coded as “CONTINUO-QUENCE PR”:
Its first part “CONTINUO-QUENCE” suggests “continuous sequence” in a mathematical sense. Its second part “PR” gives a standard abbreviation in mathematics for “probability”. For example, “Pr(E)” means “probability of an event”.
Thus the complete text suggests that our “fourth coordinate” time of xyzt may be a “continuous sequence of probabilities”.
University physicists today do not know how to represent ”time” mathematically. If the interested reader might kindly forward this new information to them, then our knowledge may be considerably advanced.
Appendix 3. Other references to the science or technology of time travel as drawn in English crop pictures
Many different references have been made in crop pictures to the science or technology of time travel. It may be that only human time travellers from 8100 AD (see above) are making crop pictures. Or it may be that time travellers from many different eras on Earth, or even from alien worlds and parallel universes, are making crop pictures?
Such time travellers would have two sensible reasons to draw temporary images in a field. First, crop pictures may help them to navigate among many different parallel timelines for Earth, just as someone walking through a forest may make “marks” on the trees. Secondly, some of these crop pictures may be messages to humans of our era. For example at Crabwood in 2002 they wrote: “Beware the bearers of false gifts and their broken promises. Much pain but still time. Believe. There is good out there. We oppose deception. Conduit closing.” Other text messages for example in 2012 have said simply “Peace”.
Here we will briefly review some of the more interesting field images which relate to “time travel” or “special relativity”. In order to make sense of these complex images, first we have to explain about the two possible geometries of special relativity.
Two different geometries may be used to express the equations of special relativity: triangular or hyperbolic
The equations of special relativity may seem easy in terms of mathematics, but they are not easy to understand in terms of physical reality! Such equations relate ct, which is the distance that light travels at velocity c after time t in an inertial frame at rest, to vt which is the distance that another object travels at velocity v after time t, as measured in the same inertial frame.
If the speed of light c were not constant, then an observer at rest might see c’t as the distance which light travels after being emitted by a moving object. For example a stationary observer might see c’ = (c + v) if the object were moving toward him, or (c – v) if the object were moving away from him. Instead he sees ct’ where the speed of light c remains constant, while the apparent length of any second may increase from t to t’.
Each second of time t’ can appear much longer than a second of time t, when we study another physical system which is in fast motion relative to ourselves. For example when we study muons in a laboratory at rest, we see that they have a mean half-life of 2.2 microseconds. Yet when we spin those same muons in a synchrotron at velocities v close to c, we see that they have a mean half-life which is ten to thirty times longer.
This strange relation is illustrated qualitatively in the movie below, where the time clock of a fast-moving muon (red) takes longer to count each second, than does the time clock of a stationary observer (blue) at the centre:
For this hypothetical case t’ / t = 3 / 1, so the muon half-life would be extended from 2 to 6 microseconds.
One way to plot the equation which predicts such phenomena quantitatively is by means of a right-angled triangle:
(hypotenuse)2 = (side 1)2 + (side 2)2
(ct)2 = (vt)2 + (ct’)2 or alternatively (ct’)2 = (vt’)2 + (ct)2.
Another way to plot this equation is by means of a hyperbola:
y2 – x2 = 1
Then we can write (see Special_Relativity):
(ct)2 - (vt)2 = (ct’)2 or alternatively (ct’)2 - (vt’)2 = (ct)2.
Sometimes ct’ is called the interval s.
Starting from the second equation, using simple algebra we find:
t’2 x (c2 – v2) = t2 x c2
t’2 / t2 = 1 / (1 – v2/c2)
t’ / t = 1 / √(1 – v2 /c2)
For v = 0, then t’ / t = 1. For v = c, then t’ / t = infinity. Generally we see an intermediate level of time dilation t’ > t if we observe a fast-moving object from a stationary frame of reference (see Time_dilation)
Now when we study English crop pictures, we find that the crop artists always express those equations of special relativity in terms of hyperbolas, rather than in terms of right-angled triangles! Thus in many of the slides below, you will see field images of “hyperbolic spacetime”, “hyperbolic triangles”, “hyperbolic squares” or “hyperbolic cubes”. You will also see field images of “curved spacetime” from the theory of general relativity, a subject which lies beyond the scope of this review.
The hyperbolic cube of Minkowski spacetime
Two field images from the summer of 2003 showed a fundamental tenet of special relativity. Namely, that no time t = 0 flows in a sphere of light speed v = c outside of a hyperbolic cube:
We might say that time dilation has become infinite, for a clock moving at speed v = c relative to ourselves, as seen from a stationary frame of reference. This explains why six small “clocks” which were drawn around the outside of that crop picture keep the same time t, as they rotate by 360o around the surface of a light sphere which surrounds the hyperbolic cube. Let us look again at the movie which was shown above:
If the red clock which rotates outside of the central blue clock were going even faster, say at light speed v = c, then that red clock would not move forward at all, while the blue clock would continue to move forward at a normal rate. That is exactly what the crop artists drew in a field near Weyhill on July 18, 2003 (see www.lucypringle.co.uk or weyhill). Each second t’ of the rotating red clock becomes infinitely longer than each second t of the stationary blue clock.
Quite amusingly, the crop artists chose a special field near Weyhill for this drawing, which looks like the “number 6” to match six vertices from a hyperbolic cube:
Ha, ha, ha, they are much cleverer than the narrow-minded physicists in our schools, who refuse to study such amazing drawings!
More hyperbolic squares and cubes: if we go faster than a sphere of light speed v = c, will we travel backwards in time?
This same theme was repeated in crops three years later, but with a slightly different twist. First we saw a repeat of the “six clock” crop picture from 2003, where a sphere of light speed v = c surrounds a hyperbolic cube (see www.lucypringle.co.uk):
Next we saw a somewhat larger “hyperbolic square”, whose four vertices have gone beyond that round sphere of light speed v = c, to what might be velocities such as v = 2c or 3c (see www.lucypringle.co.uk):
Are they trying to tell us that we can go backwards in time, if we go beyond the normal speed of light v = c?
Objects from other dimensions can pass through our spacetime
Later in 2012 we saw a two-part crop picture near Liddington Castle on July 1 or 21. It shows the various intersections of a 3-D cube with a 2-D plane, as that 3-D cube passes through the 2-D plane (see www.lucypringle.co.uk or liddington 2-cropcircle-2012):
The smallest intersection appears hyperbolic in the form of a triangle, to suggest that dimensions beyond our own have hyperbolic geometry. Indeed, that crop picture was drawn in the field next to landscape symbols for the hyperbolic form of special relativity:
Early in 2014, a small crop picture was drawn with the geometry of hyperbolic spacetime for a boomerang-shaped UFO:
This crop picture was small and simple, so it could have been locally man-made (see Brimslade).
Five elaborate drawings of curved or twisted spacetime during the summer of 2006
If there was any ever doubt that time travellers are making modern crop pictures, such doubt should have been dispelled among all rational people after the summer of 2006. During that summer, we saw five great field images for curved or twisted spacetime, some of which relate to “time travel”.
The simplest of these appeared at Old Hayward on July 19, and showed two spacetime singularities which were joining to form the “pinch” connection of a “wormhole” (see www.lucypringle.co.uk):
A slightly more complex drawing appeared on June 30 at Avebury Trusloe, and showed two spacetime wormholes whose “mouths” face one another (see www.lucypringle.co.uk):
This drawing could be meant to represent a single wormhole through space and time, or it might be meant to represent two wormholes arranged in series as for a “Roman ring” (which is a time travel device).
Another clever drawing appeared at Old Barn on July 11, and showed a special kind of wormhole called a “ringhole”, which has been topologically stabilized (like for the knot made in a shoelace) so that it becomes more stable, and enables time travel (see www.lucypringle.co.uk):
On July 8 at Savernake Forest, we saw a very elaborate drawing which seems to represent four wormholes arranged in series, as for a “Roman ring” or time travel device (see www.lucypringle.co.uk):
Finally on July 22 near Chartley Castle, we saw a drawing of “twisted spacetime”, which is a little-known consequence of the theory of general relativity (see chartley castle):
Spacetime is known to be slightly twisted around the weak gravity of planet Earth, or strongly twisted around the strong gravity of a black hole.
The chronology protection conjecture of Stephen Hawking
Amidst the vast wealth of information which has been shown to us in modern crop pictures, concerning special relativity, general relativity, and time travel, as well as a long binary code was left for us in Britain’s most famous UFO case (which involved 30 American soldiers guarding nuclear weapons at a base in southeast England), still most academic scientists do not believe that time travel is possible. They follow instead the chronology protection conjecture of Stephen Hawking, which asserts that “the laws of physics do not allow for the appearance of closed timelike curves” (see journals.aps.org or Chronology_protection_conjecture).
I do not intend to discuss the limited development of theoretical and experimental physics in our current era, which might have encouraged Professor Hawking to hastily rule out the possibility of time travel. If we look back just 100 years to before Einstein, most physicists thought that everything was “already known”. They had no understanding of special relativity, general relativity, quantum theory, transistors, computers, space travel or lasers. What would a scholar in Rome 2000 years ago say about the possibility of a modern iPhone?
Some of these time travellers seem to come from the year 8100 AD, approximately 6000 years ahead of us. How much more will physics professors know then versus now? It would behoove us, therefore, to remain open-minded on this issue, and to study all of the reliable observations from UFO events, crop pictures and so on, rather than just what is written in physics textbooks, based on laboratory experiments of the past.
The Encryption Chain Reaction: can we make the sum of passwords, for any binary message, much longer than the original message itself? This method was found by studying computer messages given by UFOs or drawn in crops.
P.S. We would like to thank all of the photographers and researchers who made this review article possible.
Red Collie (like “Shevek” in “The Dispossessed”)