Chute Causeway and the Sun-Venus calendar: precise calculations of astronomical time from 1997 to 2013
"When European scholars began decoding ancient Mayan hieroglyphs, their earliest successes were in understanding the numbering systems used by the Mayans, as well as their calendar systems which were based on visible motions of the Moon, Sun or Venus. In short, math and science provided the foundation for further communication, just as many SETI scientists predict will be the case for interstellar communication."--- www.seti.org, "Decoding E.T. in Search of a Cosmic Rosetta Stone"
Over the past year, it has become abundantly clear that modern crop pictures are a real SETI-type phenomenon, as witnessed for example by the sudden appearance of a 1 km long crop picture at East Field on July 7, 2007 at 3:14 AM, after a brief microsecond flash of "sheet lightning" above the field that was captured on camera
(www.gazetteandherald.co.uk/news/headlines/display.var.1559662.0.the_crop_circle_mystery.php or www.earthfiles.com/news.php?ID=1288&category=Environment).
In fact, fifty or more authentic crop pictures seem to appear every summer all across Europe, although mainly within a small region of southern England near Avebury. Knowledgeable experts currently believe that only 5-20% of those could be locally man-made. With such experimental facts in hand, one might suppose that modern crop pictures would be regarded as one of the greatest scientific challenges of our time! Instead, the subject remains little discussed except in local newspapers; and most professional scientists continue to know little or nothing about it.
In addition to being "real", modern crop pictures also seem to represent a form of "intelligent communication" from scientists who live in another space or time to ourselves. Finally, such highly-patterned messages do not actually seem to come from extra-terrestrial aliens, as some people believe, but rather from another human-like culture who may live in our distant past, or perhaps in another historical timeline or dimension on Earth? Thus, modern crop pictures are often "associated with ancient sites or knowledge". Since those crop pictures are demonstrably real, and represent some form of intelligent communication between other scientists and ourselves, shouldn't we at least try to understand what they are telling us?
In previous work, some of us studied a variety of complex crop pictures from 1990 to 2007 that describe solar astronomy, lunar astronomy, yearly calendars, sacred geometry or long-forgotten archaeological information (summarized in Table II below). Here I will analyze another important series of crop pictures that describe the astronomy of Venus (mainly its transits or conjunctions as seen from Earth), as well as the Sun-Venus calendar that they use to date events in our modern world.
An ancient pentagram symbol for Venus
The traditional symbol for Venus has always been that of a five-pointed star or pentagram, owing to the peculiar nature of its 225-day orbit around the Sun as seen from Earth (www.eso.org/public/outreach/eduoff/vt-2004/Education/edu1app5.html). And indeed, those unknown crop artists often use a pentagram symbol when describing Venus, for example in its close-sky approaches or conjunctions with the Sun or Moon as seen from Earth:
The "beaded spiral" symbols shown in the lower part of that diagram above were also used to depict monthly phases of our Moon at Stonehenge 1996, Windmill Hill 1996, Chiseldon 1996 and Milk Hill 2001.
Other crop pictures show the pentagram symbol for Venus on its own, in the absence of other heavenly bodies such as the Moon or Sun. Those Venus-only pictures sometimes include additional representations of the numbers "8" or "13", in order to express certain fundamental relations from astronomy concerning Venus orbit as seen from Earth, versus Venus orbit as seen from the Sun:
The relevant astronomical facts are as follows:
(i) five cycles of Venus orbit as seen from Earth = 5 x 583.92 = 2920 days;
(ii) eight Earth years = 8 x 365.25 = 2922 days;
(iii) thirteen cycles of Venus orbit as seen from the Sun = 13 x 224.70 = 2921 days
In other words, Venus requires 225 days to orbit the Sun as seen in a Sun-centred heliocentric perspective, but requires a somewhat longer 584 days to orbit the Sun as seen in an Earth-centred geocentric perspective; because Earth is moving in the same angular direction around the Sun as is Venus, except more slowly.
Chute Causeway 2007 as a pentagram artwork featuring Venus astronomy
Now apart from its two most common uses to mark conjunctions of Venus, or to teach simple Venus astronomy, that ancient pentagram symbol has also been used over the years to represent certain complex aspects of Venus astronomy: namely its rare transits across the face of the Sun, once every 105.5 or 121.5 years. One such pentagram artwork appeared at Chute Causeway in late July of 2007. There we can see many different pentagram symbols in combination, as five around the outside plus five more along the inside:
Furthermore, the entire picture has been designed as a kind of optical illusion, so that it may be perceived as either "light" or "dark". The crop artists seemingly intended us to study their design from two different visual perspectives! When seen as "light", one can count 225 small circles across the entire diagram, thereby matching how many days it takes Venus to complete one orbit as seen from the Sun:
But when seen as "dark", those 225 small circles become sub-divided into smaller groups of either 105 or 120:
In fact, those two numbers 105 and 120 closely match how many years it takes Venus to repeat its infrequent eclipse or "transit" across the face of our Sun as seen from Earth:
In summary, Chute Causeway seems to describe two different aspects of Venus astronomy, depending on whether we view the picture as "light" or "dark".
Other commentaries on Chute Causeway
Two other interesting analyses of that same crop picture have been posted on www.cropcircleconnector.com, "Late July", concerning its possible spiritual aspects: "The Fractal of Man" by Rod Bearcloud, or "Earth Log July 2007" by Celia Fenn. In his essay, Bearcloud notes eloquently:
"While such star-glyphs (crop pictures) can be understood with no meaning attached at all, at the same time a meaning can often be derived from ancient understandings. When a symbol is not defined, it can still assist in our world by seeing it as a symbolic reference in spirit. Yet I wonder where my people would be today, if the medicine wheel had never had a meaning attached to it, and was just left as something to be viewed?"
Venus transits from 2012 or 2004 portrayed in crops
Why would those crop artists show a complex pentagram artwork in July 2007, describing Venus transits of our Sun? It may be because 2007 lies almost halfway in time between two rare transits of our Sun on June 8, 2004 and later June 6, 2012. A near-future transit of Venus in June of 2012 was referred to specifically by a simple yet elegant crop picture from Stanton St. Bernard in August 2007, which showed the Mayan symbol for "six":
Indeed, as of August 18, 2007, there were precisely "six Venus conjunctions left to go" until it enters transit 6 x 292 = 1752 days later on June 6, 2012. A past transit of Venus in June of 2004 was likewise referred to by several crop pictures from 2000 or 2003:
To conclude: Venus conjunctions, orbital astronomy and transits all seem to play an important role in modern crop pictures. But why?
A second kind of Venus symbolism used to portray the Mayan Calendar Round
Apart from facilitating SETI-type communication between our two cultures, by showing us facts that we already know, the frequent appearance of Venus in modern crop pictures may perhaps be related to the time-keeping scheme of those crop artists in our modern era. For whatever reason, they seem to favour an ancient Mayan time-keeping scheme known as the "Calendar Round" (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maya_calendar):
Above in oilseed rape from 1998, we see a classic Calendar Round with 33 (or 32.5) angular divisions. That particular number of divisions always symbolized a long-term periodicity of Venus in Mayan-Aztec culture. To be more specific, Venus completes any single orbit about the Sun as seen from Earth in 584 days; and hence will complete 32.5 orbits in 32.5 x 584 = 18,980 days, which is close to 52 solar years (18,993 days).
Then in two subsequent pictures from 2003, the crop artists showed us how they keep time in our modern era by means of a Sun-Venus calendar. Their first picture showed a 32-cycle long-term periodicity of Venus on the inside (yellow numbers), that should last for 52 Earth years (red numbers outside) as one complete Calendar Round:
Their second picture showed a 65-cycle long-term periodicity of Venus (yellow numbers outside, red numbers inside) that would last for 2 x 52 = 104 Earth years as two Calendar Rounds, if it were carried to completion:
Yet as of August 2003 when that second picture appeared, their current 104-year calendar had apparently not yet been completed, because its red numbers only go up to "59" rather than to "65"! Also, only four S-shaped symbols for Venus appear along the inside, whereas two full Calendar Rounds would have shown ten. The remaining amount of calendar time should therefore equal 65 - 59 = 6 cycles of Venus, where 6 x 584 = 3504 days or 9.6 years.
We know that the Mayan Long Count will end in late December of 2012. There will be a Sun-Venus conjunction only a few months later on March 28, 2013. Could both their Long Count and Sun-Venus calendars end together? If we add 9.6 years as just calculated to August 2003, we find 2003.65 + 9.6 = 2013.25 or late March 2013, which is close to when Venus will enter superior conjunction with the Sun as seen from Earth.
Other commentaries on Venus and the Calendar Round
"No day-name in the Calendar Round was repeated before a complete sequence of combinations had occurred over 52 years, or 52 x 365 = 18,980 days. That period of time is also equal to 32.5 orbital periods of Venus or 32.5 x 584 = 18,980 days. A Venus Table from the Dresden Codex lasted exactly twice as long as any Calendar Round, and thus covered a period of 104 years, equal to 65 orbital periods of Venus or 37,960 days."---or www.geocities.com/Athens/Delphi/9976/mayan5.html
Part of the ancient Venus Table is shown below:
"In the Venus Table from the Dresden Codex, the first date in the first row corresponds to a superior conjunction of Venus. The second date, 90 days later, corresponds to its rise as an evening star. The third date, 250 days later, tells when Venus disappears at inferior conjunction. The fourth date, 8 days later, marks its rise as a morning star. The next cycle begins with another superior conjunction."---http://members.shaw.ca/mjfinley/4VENUS.htm
A Sun-Venus calendar: how those crop artists "count time" in our modern era from 1997 to 2013
The single calculation given above, concerning start and end-dates for a crop-based Sun-Venus calendar, seemed promising but not conclusive. Yet if we now carry out that same kind of analysis on many different crop pictures that have appeared over the years, and combine the information given by each one into a coherent whole, then we can easily arrive at a fairly good idea of how those crop artists "count time" in our modern era from 1997 to 2013.
Both conjunctions and transits of Venus seem to play a major role in such time-keeping. An "inferior conjunction" is when Venus comes between the Sun and Earth. A "superior conjunction" is when the Sun comes between Venus and Earth. A "transit" is a special kind of inferior conjunction, where Venus eclipses part of the Sun as seen from Earth. Conjunctions happen once every 292 days, whether inferior or superior. The time between any two conjunctions of the same kind is 584 days. The time between transits may be either 105.5 or 121.5 years, and then they occur in "pairs" separated by 8 years.
I will give below a brief verbal description of each crop picture studied, with the goal of deriving more information about their Sun-Venus calendar. A concise summary of all mathematical results will be provided further below in Table I.
July 1997, Etchilhampton Hill: 26 x 30 = 780 weeks or 15 years left until a transit of Venus in June 2012. In other words, 1997.5 + 15.0 = 2012.5. (The Mayans used 13 or 20-day weeks. Presumably this early calculation using 7-day weeks was to help us understand.)
August 2, 2003, East Field: 59 out of 65 Venus cycles from our current 104-year Mayan calendar have already been used, leaving just 6 cycles of 584 days = 3504 days or 9.59 years until an end to that calendar on March 28, 2013 (superior conjunction). In other words, 2003.65 + 9.59 = 2013.24. August 18, 2003 or 2003.65 was a superior conjunction close to when that crop picture appeared.
August 2, 2004, Silbury Hill: a Mayan Sunstone picture suggests that only 52 / 6 = 8.67 years remain until our current 52-year calendar ends on March 28, 2013 (superior conjunction). In other words, 2004.57 + 8.67 = 2013.24. August 2, 2004 or 2004.57 was when that crop picture appeared. Our current 52-year calendar would presumably begin on April 10, 1961 or precisely 18,980 days earlier (inferior conjunction).
August 9, 2005, Wayland's Smithy: another Mayan Sunstone picture uses our current 52-year calendar to define a series of hexadecimal dates that start apparently with "0-0-0" on April 10, 1961 (inferior conjunction) and end with "16-0-0" on March 28, 2013 (superior conjunction). Then it gives a reference date of "13-10-7" that translates precisely to August 9, 2005 when that crop picture appeared (to help us understand their math), plus an event date of "14-5-11" that translates to November 21, 2007 plus or minus two days. What might happen then?
July 8, 2006, Wayland's Smithy: a series of astronomical rays were shown proceeding outward in three directions x, y, z from a central source, possibly our galactic centre. The three longest showed an approximate 7 x 8 = 56 grid at each square end. Yet each of those rays could have shown a perfectly-square 8 x 8 = 64 grid, to portray the number of Venus conjunctions in our current 52-year calendar (65 in total, or 64 until transit). Hence there were apparently 64 - 56 = 8 left as of July 2006, equal to 8 x 292 = 2336 days or 6.40 years. When we add 6.40 years to July 2006, we find a near-future date of 2006.6 + 6.4 = 2013.0, that lies close to the winter solstice of December 2012.
August 12, 2007, Stanton St. Bernard: an ancient Mayan symbol for "the number six" provided us with two overlapping meanings. First, it marked six days left until the next conjunction of Venus on August 18, 2007 (inferior). Secondly, it marked six conjunctions left until a transit of Venus on June 6, 2012. In other words, 2006.63 + 4.80 = 2012.43.
Table I. Examples of modern crop pictures that seem to use a Sun-Venus calendar
We are being sent SETI-type messages in English fields, but will anyone listen?
Whatever your thoughts may have been concerning modern crop pictures, prior to reading this analysis, hopefully they will become more accurate and factual in the future. The vast majority of Earth's population has until recently been misinformed. .
We are clearly being sent SETI-type messages in English fields: starting in the late 1980's, then continuing each year from 1990 to 2007. There is every indication that such crop-based messages will continue until at least 2013, judging from the nature of their Sun-Venus calendar as described above.
We do not yet understand how ancient Mayan-Aztec culture could be exerting such a strong influence on many of those crop messages. One possibility is that such messages come from our distant past, when Mayan and British megalithic cultures may have been in close contact. Another possibility is that they come from an alternative historical timeline on Earth: one in which Spanish invaders did not destroy an already-advanced central American culture in 1520, thereby allowing it to continue into the future?
Whatever the final answer to these difficult questions may be, it should be noted here that a large number of modern crop pictures have already been elucidated in part, and not just the Sun-Venus ones discussed above. Most of the others recount ancient knowledge that was present throughout the British Isles, Europe or Egypt 4000 to 5000 years ago, and are summarized briefly in Table II below. For a more complete description, one should consult www.cropcircleconnector.com or its archives.
Table II. A brief summary of modern crop pictures and their diverse subject matter